Here’s the PowerPoint slide deck from the session I did last month at the Irish Windows User Group event on branch office infrastructure:

Branch Office Infrastructure  

View more presentations from joe_elway.

Windows IT Pro Magazine and Dan Holme are bringing a SharePoint roadshow to Europe, including Ireland.  Not all the dates are published yet.  More details can be found on their announcement.

Windows IT Pro magazine features lots of writers and editors who are MVP’s, e.g. Eric Rux, Kimberly Tripp, Mark Minasi, Rhonda Layfield and Curt Spanburgh.  Due to the format, it can’t really get into great details on technical subjects but it can serve as an introduction to the subjects in question to get you started.  Also watch out for their Windows Connections conferences that run in Orlando (once a year), another city in the USA (often Las Vegas, once a year) and sometimes in Europe.  “WinCon” is like a smaller version of TechEd where you can get to speak more to the presenters and often get a more open conversation than you can at a Microsoft event *ahem* ;-)

EDIT: I talked to one of the organisers and the Irish event may be much later in the year.


This news broke last week while I was working the TechDays events in Cork and Galway.  I was speaking to someone in HP afterwards and I was told that these would not be the “high skilled/high tech” jobs that politicians and lazy journalists cling to.  Instead, they are call centre jobs.  Ask any graduate the job they least want to do and it’s call centre work.  It’s not what they planned as their career choice – in fact, if they had a time travelling machine they’d probably change their college course if they knew they’d end up answering the phone after 4 years of college education.

But it is at least some bright spot of good news in a brutal economy.  For you non-Irish readers, we’re having a double economic disaster.  There is the global economic thing and there is also our own local meltdown too.  I heard 12% being mentioned as our unemployment rate at the moment on the TV this morning.

I’m left wondering what this call centre will be doing for HP.  Anyone who has dealt with HP’s India-based call centre has complained immediately afterwards.  HP has failed to get it right over there.  Strange because MS seems to have done a good job.  9 out of 10 times I deal with PSS in India I’m happy.  Maybe it’s a company attitude.  Of course, having a phone line that doesn’t crackle and where the volume of the phone line is decent too will help.  With any luck, HP will move their enterprise H/W support for EMEA to Ireland.


HP have an interesting take on Cisco’s announcement to launch a blade server product set.


Some New IIS7 Stuff

Heads up IIS7 administrators.  There’s a bunch of new stuff to have a look at:

Administration Pack for IIS7

Microsoft released x86 and x64 versions of this pack.  It offers:

“The modules of the Administration Pack are a toolset to help you be more productive when using IIS Manager. Functionality varies from increased configuration editing capabilities to configuring FastCGI settings on your server.

Configuration Editor:
The configuration editor module will help you manage your configuration files. This tool is available for server administrators only. It allows you to edit any section, attribute, element or collection in your configuration file. In addition to editing these values you are also able to lock and unlock them. The configuration editor also allows you to generate scripts based on the actions you take as well as search the file to see where values are being used.

UI Extensions:

  • UI Extension modules allow you to manage existing features through IIS Manager.
  • The FastCGI module allows you to manage your FastCGI settings.
  • The two ASP.NET modules allow you to manage your authorization and custom errors settings.
  • Finally the HTTP Request Filtering allows you to setup rules for http request filtering”.

Microsoft Application Request Routing Version 2 for IIS 7 Beta 1

Microsoft released a new version of this beta release for x86 and x64 servers.

“The ARR version 2 beta 1 is an incremental release that includes all the features from version1, but it also adds a support for disk based cache.  More specifically, ARR version 2 beta 1 can be used to:

  • Enhance ARR version 1 scenarios with disk cache.
  • Use ARR as a cache proxy as an edge cache in CDN/ECN environment.

The ARR version 1 and ARR version 2 beta 1 cannot be installed side-by-side”.

IIS Database Manager Release Candidate

There are x64 and x86 releases of this RC (pre-production) release.

“IIS Database Manager allows you to easily manage your local and remote databases from within IIS Manager. IIS Database Manager automatically discovers databases based on the Web server or application configuration and also provides the ability to connect to any database on the network. Once connected, IIS Database Manager provides a full array of management options including managing tables, views, stored procedures and data, as well as running ad hoc queries.

IIS Database Manager provides native support for SQL Server and is also fully extensible for developers to add support for other database systems. In addition, because IIS Database Manager is an extension of IIS Manager, administrators can securely delegate the management of databases to authorized local or remote users, without having to open additional management ports on the server.
Here are a few articles to get your started on using the IIS Database Manager Release Candidate:

Microsoft FTP Service 7.5 for IIS 7.0

A newer version of FTP Service is available for x64 and x86 servers running IIS 7.  As you may or may not know, the default FTP service is a throwback to IIS6 and is not desirable considering the simpler management and new functionality in the free replacements from MS.

“Microsoft has created a new FTP service that has been completely rewritten for Windows Server 2008. This new FTP service incorporates many new features that enable web authors to publish content better than before, and offers web administrators more security and deployment options. This new FTP service supports a wide range of features and improvements, and the following list contains several of the improvements in this version:

  • Integration with IIS 7.0: IIS 7.0 has a brand-new administration interface and configuration store, and the new FTP service is tightly integrated with this new design. The old IIS 6 metabase is gone, and a new configuration store that is based on the .NET XML-based *.config format has taken its place. In addition, IIS 7.0 has a new administration tool, and the new FTP server plugs seamlessly into that paradigm.
  • Support for new Internet standards: One of the most significant features in the new FTP server is support for FTP over SSL. The new FTP server also supports other Internet improvements such as UTF8, IPv6, and adaptive networking bandwidth usage.
  • Shared hosting improvements: By fully integrating into IIS 7.0, the new FTP server makes it possible to host FTP and Web content from the same site by simply adding an FTP binding to an existing Web site. In addition, the FTP server now has virtual host name support, making it possible to host multiple FTP sites on the same IP address. The new FTP server also has improved user isolation, now making it possible to isolate users through per-user virtual directories.
  • Extensibility and custom authentication: The new FTP server supports developer extensibility, making it possible for software vendors to write custom providers for FTP authentication. Microsoft is using this extensibility feature to implement two new methods for using non-Windows accounts for FTP authentication for IIS Managers and .NET Membership.
  • Improved logging support: FTP logging has been enhanced to include all FTP-related traffic, unique tracking for FTP sessions, FTP sub-statuses, additional detail fields in FTP logs, and much more.
  • New supportability features: IIS 7.0 has a new option to display detailed error messages for local users, and the FTP server supports this by providing detailed error responses when logging on locally to an FTP server. The FTP server also logs detailed information using Event Tracing for Windows (ETW), which provides additional detailed information for troubleshooting”.

Microsoft WebDAV 7.5 for IIS 7.0

Phew … this is the last one.  There’s an x86 and x64 release of the new version of WebDAV for IIS 7.0.

osoft has created a new WebDAV extension module that has been completely rewritten for Windows Server 2008. This new WebDAV extension module incorporates many new features that enable web authors to publish content better than before, and offers web administrators more security and deployment options. This new WebDAV extension module supports a wide range of features and improvements, and the following list contains several of the improvements in this version:

  • Integration with IIS 7.0: IIS 7.0 has a brand-new administration interface and configuration store, and the new WebDAV extension module is tightly integrated with this new design. The old IIS 6.0 metabase is gone, and a new configuration store that is based on the .NET XML-based *.config format has taken its place. In addition, IIS 7.0 has a new administration tool, and the new WebDAV extension module plugs seamlessly into that paradigm.
  • Per-site Configuration: WebDAV in IIS 7.0 can be enabled at the site-level, unlike IIS 6.0 which enabled WebDAV at the server-level through a Web Service Extension.
  • Per-URL Security Settings: The new WebDAV extension module supports per-URL authoring rules, allowing administrators to specify custom WebDAV security settings on a per-URL basis. These authoring rules are separate from the IIS 7.0 per-URL authorization rules, thereby allowing one set of security settings for normal HTTP requests and a separate set of security settings for WebDAV authoring.
  • Support for shared and exclusive locks: The new WebDAV extension supports both shared and exclusive locks to prevent lost updates due to overwrites”.

Hyper-V and Antivirus

There’s a major potential issue if you do a default installation of anti-virus or anti-malware on a Hyper-V parent partition (host operating system).  If you don’t have file/folder exclusions in place then your VM’s may fail to start or even disappear from your console.  I experienced this issue before.  MS got involved and couldn’t rescue the missing VM configurations (the VHD’s were fine so I rebuilt the VM configurations).

Ben Armstrong offers two configurations:

  1. Don’t install AV on the parent partition.  This is the one I recommend and I use.  The parent partitions are on a secure and isolated network anyway.
  2. Install AV and enforce certain configurations.

Ben says the following should be excluded from scans to configure that installed AV:

  • Default virtual machine configuration directory (Normally this is C:ProgramDataMicrosoftWindowsHyper-V)
  • Custom virtual machine configuration directories
  • Default virtual hard disk directory (Normally this is C:UsersPublicDocumentsHyper-VVirtual Hard Disks)
  • Custom virtual hard disk directories
  • Snapshot directories
  • Vmms.exe
  • Vmwp.exe

My issue with this is that it’s very easy for a s/w upgrade or an operator mistake to cripple half of your network in an instant.  That’s why I’m pretty vociferous on not installing AV on the parent partition.

To protect yourself, leave that Windows Firewall up, don’t install anything other than Hyper-V and management agents on the Hyper-V parent partition (host operating system) and don’t browse from it.


RedHat on Hyper-V Video

TechNet Edge published a video on what MS is doing with RedHat on Hyper-V and shows it in action.

It sounds like the validation process for RedHat will be done in H2 of this year.  No timeframe on the integration components.  Integration components offer significant performance enhancements over emulation.  I’ve seen this with SUSE.

It will be certified on W2008 and W2008 R2.  R2 will support Live Migration – this works even with emulated guests.


Reuters has reported that Cisco will indeed sell servers for the data centre. They will partner with the likes of EMC, VMware, Intel, Microsoft, CA and … BMC. 

This move will put them head to head with the likes of Dell, HP and IBM.  The server world is moving towards virtualisation.  90% of physical servers will end up being virtualisation hosts so it makes sense to aim at this market.  There’s two things we know that won’t really change too much in demand: storage and networking.  Cisco aren’t a storage company but they are a networking company, despite their efforts to become better known as a “unified communications” company.

BMC hmmm?  I know them only for the Patrol product.  I didn’t like it because it required you to pretty much complete it with scripting and programming.  I wonder if something bigger isn’t going on.


The HP Communities blog did a summary of what is new in the EVA 6400 and 8400.  Users of the 4400 can expect most of the functionality to appear in software/firmware updates in the coming months.


Microsoft has released an updated version of their planning and deployment guide for Hyper-V:

“This guide includes information about hardware requirements and limits, supported guest operating systems, and instructions for installing the role and management tools. It also includes information about configuring security, network, and storage for the Hyper-V role”.

You might want to also read my introduction to Hyper-V if this technology is new to you.  That covers the terminology, the architecture and the theory of machine virtualisation and Hyper-V.  I’ve started to write a guide on installing and configuring Hyper-V.  That’s stalled temporarily until this current glut of speaking I’m on is over – probably in May.


Half Way Through TechDays

I did 800 miles of driving last week, most of that related to TechDays for IT Pros 2009 in Ireland.  I’d a small part in the Galway event and I was more involved in the Cork event, presenting with Dave Northey from MS Ireland on Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 and the new version of Hyper-V.

Note: We can only do so much in the given time slots so we’re following up TechDays with user group events, e.g. the Windows User Group event that will be a deep dive on the new version of Hyper-V.

After each TechDays event we’ve spent a good deal of time talking to attendees, answering questions, etc.  I’ve found Hyper-V, branch office solutions and Terminal Services to be popular subjects.

It’s back to a “normal” work week for the coming week.  We’re on the road again on the 23rd.  I’ll be doing the “IT Pro @ Home” sessions, speaking about Windows 7 for digital photographers.  That’ll be repeated in Belfast.  We’ll also be repeating the sessions from both Galway and Cork.  I think I’ll do the train this time to relax.


I’ll be speaking about Hyper-V in Windows Server 2008 R2 at a Windows User Group (Ireland) event next month.  This will be a follow up to the session we’re doing at the IT Pro TechDays events around Ireland.

At TechDays for IT Pro’s 2009 there will be some sessions on Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. This will include some information and demonstrations on the new version of Hyper-V. However, due to time constraints, we won’t have time to get into the deep details of how and why things work.

Aidan Finn (C Infinity – http://www.cinfinity.ie ) will be talking about the new technologies that will be included as part of Hyper-V in Windows Server 2008 R2 and Hyper-V Server 2008 R2. This includes new functionality and improvements in performance thanks to cooperation between Microsoft and their hardware partners.

Dave Northey (Microsoft Ireland) will be doing some demonstrations of the technology in action, including the much anticipated Live Migration.


30th April, 7.30am-10am. We’re going to try a morning session to give people an alternative time for the Windows User Group events.

Who’s Speaking?

- Aidan Finn – http://joeelway.spaces.live.com and C Infinity http://www.cinfinity.ie
- Dave Northey – http://blogs.technet.com/ieitpro/


Join the user group (for free) and we’ll send you an invitation to the event.  Membership and registration are free.

Talking about Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V Deep Dive

Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V Deep Dive

Hosted by:
Aidan Finn & Dave Northey

Date and time:
30 April 2009 from 07:30 to 10:00

Swift Suite 2, Radisson SAS Royal Hotel, Golden Lane, Dublin 8, Ireland

View this event on Windows Live


Microsoft has written a whitepaper on running and consolidating SQL Server on Hyper-V.  It comes highly recommended by Jose Barreto.  It talks about SQL 2005 and SQL 2008.


TechDays Has Kicked Off

Yesterday saw the first event of TechDays Ireland in Galway.  There was a good turnout and they got to see sessions from 3 speakers including Rhonda Layfield (deployment MVP from the USA) and Niall Flanagan (SQL MVP from Ireland).  Niall had a particularly tough challenge – how to talk about the basics of managing SQL to non-DBA’s in 40 minutes.  He did a cracking job.  There were a few nerves as laptops started acting up before the event but all fell into place in the last 10 minutes. 

I didn’t blog – I don’t want to give away the material while the sessions are ongoing.  Instead, I’ll be twittering little bits here and there with a #TechDays flag.

Afterwards a good deal of people hung around in the bar and we chatted until the wee hours.  We missed the last opportunity to order food so Enda from MS ordered in pizzas to the hotel from Domino’s.  Sweet!

I’m off to Cork today for tomorrows event – I’ve a detour to make a stop along the way.  I’ll check in and do some work from the hotel tonight.  Then it’s on to TechDays in Cork.  The agenda is different than last night with more of a focus on pure IT pro material.  Myself and Dave Northey from MS will be doing a “Windows 7 & Windows 2008 R2 Better Together and Hyper-V R2” session.  I’ll do the death-by-powerpoint while Dave does the demos.  We rehearsed yesterday – the demo’s look very cool.

So if you’re in the south and the agenda sounds like you’re cup of tea, register (for free) and come along.  There’s a draw for an X-Box Elite and 2 TechNet Plus subscriptions for those who attend, fill in their feedback forms and stick around for 5 minutes for the draw (the latter does help!)


Understanding W2008 DFS

Jose Barreto of MS has written a long article on the basics of Windows Server 2008 Distributed File System.  I’m amazed how many people don’t know anything about DFS Namespace or DFS Replication (DFS-R).  I was using DFS back in Windows 2003 for the namespace.  It meant our logon scripts only had to map one drive even if we had shares all over the place.  It also made it easy to move file shares around or even fail over to a DR file server without users even knowing.  We also used DFS-R’s predecessor, FRS (File Replication Service) for replicating static data like RIS images and MSI packages.  It was flaky!  DFS-R is a complete re-write and gives block level replication.  It can even do some de-duplication if you throw a single Enterprise edition server into the mix via cross-file replication.


“This document describes changes in Remote Desktop Services (formerly Terminal Services) functionality that are available in this Beta release of Windows Server 2008 R2, including changes to the names of role services and management tools. Remote Desktop Services provides technologies that enable users to access session-based desktops, virtual machine-based desktops, or applications in the datacenter from within a corporate network or from the Internet”.


It’s a quick read and worth looking at if you’re interested in either Terminal Services or VDI.

Microsoft announced the luianch of the Windows Server TechCenter Migration Portal for Windows Server 2008 R2.  This will assist you in your plans to migrate to Windows 2008 R2

Two Hyper-V KB Articles

MS publsihed two Hyper-V KB articles:
When you start a restored Virtual Machine (VM) that was backed up using Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) the VM generates the following message:
Event ID 6008, "The previous system shutdown at time on <date> was unexpected"
This article describes the Microsoft Support Policy for Network Adapter Teaming when used in conjunction with Hyper-V.
Network Adapter Teaming is a 3rd party Technology that provides fault tolerance for multiple Network Adapters.

Taylor Brown (Microsoft) linked to and quoted from a review done by Virtualization Review.  Here’s the important bit:

”Hyper-V was the first product compared, and it performed quite differently from expectations. Hyper-V has been a focus of Microsoft dev efforts, and it shows. Overall, Hyper-V did well in this comparison and proved itself a worthy product.”

“In our tests, Hyper-V did well in all categories-it’s a real, viable competitor for the competition. Table 2 shows Hyper-V’s comparative performance.”

“After doing these comparisons of ESX to Hyper-V and XenServer, it’s clear that at the hypervisor level, ESX is optimized for a large number of less-intensive workload VMs. For intensive workloads that may not be optimized for memory overcommit apps, Hyper-V and XenServer should definitely be considered-even if that means adding another hypervisor into the data center.”

They go on to say it’s horses for courses:

“For CPU- and memory-intensive applications, XenServer and Hyper-V are attractive and have proven their mettle. For a large number of light to moderate workloads-or if you decide that memory overcommit, for example, is important-ESX may be the answer”.


I just read this article.  I don’t know if it’s yet another rebranding by the renaming department or if it’s a real change.  Hopefully whoever is doing this will look beyond the 50 states/star bangled banner and notice there’s an entire world out there where highly qualified partners (often better than the big-boys to be honest) exist and cannot move up the food chain.


On The Road This Week

I’ll be hitting the road tomorrow, starting my Microsoft TechDays tour of Ireland.  I’ll be doing a little road trip with fellow VMP and the “Queen of Deployment” Rhonda Layfield.  We’ll both be speaking at TechDays in Galway tomorrow night.  I’ve a meeting down the country on Wednesday and I’ll be back at TechDays in Cork on Thursday night.

There’s some special incentive to go to the events in Cork and Galway.  Both events will have prizes of an X-Box Elite and a pair of TechNet subscriptions.  Registration is free – but please on register if you intend to go.  And the prizes are only for people who attend.  The sessions will have plenty of good content too.


VMM 2008 R2 Beta Has Started

The beta testing program for Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2 has started.  You can apply for entry on Microsoft Connect.  Here’s what is said about the new release on the site:

“System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 (VMM) is a comprehensive management solution for managing virtualized infrastructure running on Windows Server 2008 with Hyper-V, Virtual Server 2005 R2 and VMware ESX through Virtual Center.  Recently, Windows Server 2008 R2 Beta was released which included significant feature improvements to Hyper-V—the underlying hypervisor platform.  A corresponding beta version of VMM R2 – the next version of VMM – is due for release shortly.  VMM R2 Beta  leverages the new platform enhancements and extends the feature set of VMM 2008. This overview highlights the most important new and significantly enhanced features in the VMM 2008 R2 Beta:

Support for new features of Windows Server 2008 R2 Beta

  • Live Migration: – Seen through the VMM console, this enables administrators to move virtual machines from one machine in a virtual host cluster to another with no downtime. This allows administrators greater flexibility in responding to planned or unplanned downtime, provides higher machine availability and more robust fault tolerance within virtualized infrastructure. The basic requirements for Live Migration are that all hosts must be part of a cluster and host processors must be from the same manufacturer.  Additionally all hosts in the cluster must have access to shared storage.  No changes are required to existing virtual machines, network, or storage devices in moving from Quick Migration to Live Migration other than upgrading to beta versions of Windows Server 2008 R2 and VMM 2008 R2.
  • Hot addition/removal of VHDs:  Allows the addition and removal of new virtual hard disks (VHDs) on a running virtual machine.  This enables storage growth in virtual machines without downtime.  Additionally, ‘live” VHD management allows administrators to take advantage of additional backup scenarios and readily use mission critical and storage-intense applications (eg: SQL Server and Exchange).
  • New optimized networking technologies: VMM 2008 R2 Beta supports two new networking technologies – Virtual Machine Queue (VMQ) and TCP Chimney – providing increased network performance while demanding less CPU burden.  NICS that support VMQ, create a unique virtual network queue for each virtual machine on a host that can pass network packets directly from the hypervisor to virtual machine. This speeds throughput as it bypasses much of the processing normally required by the virtualization stack. With TCP Chimney, TCP/IP traffic can be offloaded to a physical NIC on the host computer reducing CPU load and improving network performance.

Enhanced storage and cluster support

  • Clustered Shared Volumes (CSV): Provides a single, consistent storage space that allows virtual hosts in a cluster to concurrently access virtual machine files on a single shared logical unit number (LUN). CSV eliminates the previous one LUN per virtual machine restriction and coordinates the use of storage with much greater efficiency and higher performance. CSV enables the Live Migration of virtual machines in and out of the shared LUN without impacting other virtual machines. Enabling CSV on failover clusters is straightforward and easy to monitor through the VMM administrator’s console; many storage configuration complexities prior to CSV have been eliminated.
  • SAN migration into and out of clustered hosts: This allows virtual machines to migrate into and out of clustered hosts using a SAN transfer, which automatically configures the cluster nodes to recognize and support the new workload.
  • Expanded Support for iSCSI SANs:  Previously, only one LUN could be bound to a single iSCSI target whereas now — with VMM 2008 R2 Beta — multiple LUNS can be mapped to a single iSCSI target.    This provides broader industry support for iSCSI SANs allowing customers more flexibility in choosing storage providers and iSCSI SAN options.

Streamlined process for managing host upgrades:

Maintenance Mode:  Allows administrators to apply updates or perform maintenance on a host server by safely evacuating all virtual machines to other hosts on a cluster using Live Migration or putting those workloads into a saved state to be safely reactivated when maintenance or upgrades are complete. Maintenance mode is enabled for all supported hypervisor platforms on Windows Server 2008 R2 Beta.

Other VMM 2008 R2 Beta enhancements

  • Support of disjoint domains:  Reduces the complexity of reconciling host servers with differing domain names in Active Directory and DNS.  In these situations, VMM 2008 R2 Beta automatically creates a custom service principal name (SPN) configured in both AD and DNS allowing for successful authentication. 
  • Use of defined port groups with VMware Virtual Center:  On installation, VMM 2008 R2 Beta will present available port groups for VMM’s use with VMware Virtual Center thus allowing administrators to maintain control over which port groups are used”.

I like that MS is doing this stuff.  Reading this on a set of web pages isn’t the same.  This video will show you how to design a custom performance report for Operations Manager 2007.


VMM 2008 Error Codes

We’ve all seen that nasty error code when we’ve tried to share an ISO from VMM 2008 to a Hyper-V server.  What exactly did it mean?  You now have a site where those codes will be translated into human-speak.


There’s some interesting findings in this survey by Forrester.  It talks about “enterprise” adoption of virtualisation and interest in associated problems/solutions.  I’ve no idea how they define an “enterprise”, e.g. size?, or what country they did the survey in, e.g. USA only?

  • 54% have deployed machine virtualisation.  Hmm, Gartner reckoned 1 year ago that only 10% of servers worldwide were virtualised.  If sales were that good then Microsoft, Citrix and VMware would be letting us know.  However, CPU and server sales have plummeted despite stable storage sales, e.g. right what you’d expect with virtualisation.
  • 81% are interested in reducing the costs of power and cooling.  18% are seriously interested.  To me, that means 81% of those surveyed don’t really care or understand.  Did you know your computer room doesn’t really need to be 18 or 21 degrees Celsius?  You can safely run it at 30 degrees Celsius and your servers will still be happy.  So will your operators who won’t have to bring an Arctic coat to work in the Summer.
  • “Firms are feeling real pain over the costs of maintaining PCs”.  You’re still going to have to manage your user working environment, e.g. OS deployment, s/w deployment, AV, patching, upgrades, etc.  There’s still printers and peripherals.  From what I can see, the technologies you can use now to optimise PC management will be the same ones you can use in VDI or Terminal Services.  Also from what I’ve seen, most businesses have failed to adopt the correct strategies or invest in hiring the right staff to manage these technologies which will vastly reduce costs and complexity.  The cut one small corner to create a costly huge detour.

Credit: www.ideationcloud.com

Get Adobe Flash player